Volume 52 / 2020 Issue 2
ПРЕХОД КЪМ УСТОЙЧИВО РАЗВИТИЕ В ЮГОИЗТОЧНА ЕВРОПА: УСПЕШНИ ПРАКТИКИ, ОБЩЕСТВЕНИ НАГЛАСИ И СОЦИАЛНО-ИКОНОМИЧЕСКИ ЕФЕКТИ
TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE: SUCCESSFUL PRACTICES, PUBLIC ATTITUDES AND SOCIOECONOMIC EFFECTS
Уводни думи
Editorial
Pages: 381 - 383 (3 pages)
Подоходна стратификация и нейното значение за постигане на целите на устойчиво развитие
Income Stratification in Relation to Sustainable Development Goals
Abstract: This article analyzes the stratified attitudes of the low, middle and high income strata related to the goals of sustainable development, which are a component of the vision of a justice, digital and green society. The study focuses on attitudes towards poverty reduction, the principles of justice income distribution and the importance of environmental protection. The use of the Internet has been studied as an objective measure of digital divide, the reduction of which is part of the technological change that is inclusive and of benefit for everyone. A comparison was made between three European countries – Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Data from the European Social Survey (2018) were used, correlation analyzes and logistic regression was applied. Conclusions have been drawn on the consensus on the need for support for the poor and for people in need by the state. In terms of understanding of the justice of income distribution, the support of all social strata is for distribution according to labour participation. In Bulgaria, support for environmental protection is greater than in Hungary and there is no difference with the attitudes in Czech Republic. There are significant differences between the income strata in terms of everyday Internet use. The digital divide is significant in the three compared countries. In this respect, the differences between poor, middle and rich are very significant and are a serious barrier to digital change, which is accessible and to the benefit of the different social groups.
Pages: 385 - 408 (24 pages)
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Управление на екоиновациите и развитие на екопредприемачеството в България – случаят harmonica TM
Management of Sustainable Innovations and Development of Ecopreneurship in Bulgaria – The Case of Harmonica
Abstract: The article presents a case study of the development of eco-innovation and eco-entrepreneurship in Bulgaria on the example of organic food. Through the prism of a proposed sociological interpretation of the economic approach to the so-called value chains the process of creating new production and consumption practices is described. Considering the synthesis of the environmental, social and technological dimension through the competences of the involved actors in the innovation process of a start-up business, an example is given for the generation of not only an economic value. Thus, the separating of economic growth from energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions is seen in the rethought creation of added value through transition from quantitative to qualitative improvement.
Pages: 409 - 427 (19 pages)
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Климатът и средната класа в страните от Югоизточна Европа
Climate of the Middle Class of the Southeast European Countries
Резюме: Sustainable development is connected to socio-economic development. Because of this, the position and development of the middle class in Southeastern European countries is crucial in understanding the challenges for climate policies. From the outset, it seems that the middle class in the Southeast is more concerned with living standards and jobs than with climate change, as voiced by political leaders. However, in this paper I argue the middle class in the Southeast is seriously worried about climate change. The nature of the climate problem has a tragic element, that is rooted in its long time span and potential catastrophic impact. The middle class is typically associated with long-term thinking and responsibility across generations. Because of this, I argue that it would be surprising for it to not be a concern to the middle class. This is backed up by the data, which shows a great concern for climate change among the population of the Southeastern countries. Hence, support for climate policies might be much larger than indicated by the statements from politicians, including the role of the EU in this process.
Abstract: middle class; climate change; moral reasoning; EU; Green deal
Pages: 428 - 444 (17 pages)
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Отвореност към промените сред младежите в постсоциалистическите страни от Югоизточна Европа
Openness to Change among Young People in Post-Socialist Countries of Southeast Europe
Abstract: Young people are an important factor in every society, particularly in post-socialist societies, that have experienced mostly formal, but not quite substantive changes. Basing on the perspective of sustainable change, this paper aims to explore the openness to change as the value among young people in post-socialist countries of Southeast Europe. At the beginning of 2019, the voluntary and anonymous online survey was conducted on the sample of 1419 young people in seven post-socialist countries of Southeast Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia. Shalom Schwartz’s model (1992; 2012; 2017) on basic human values was used as a research tool. Openness to change, according to Schwartz, means “freedom of thought and action and a propensity for change” as opposed to the value of conservation, which means “obedience and limiting one’s actions to maintain the status quo” (Schwartz, 1992). The results of the MANOVA indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in the respondents’ level of openness to change across the observed countries. Still, there are statistically significant differences concerning the economic status of respondents: openness to change is more important to respondents of lower economic status. One can assume that young people who live in poverty are more affected by transitional problems of their societies and need sustainable changes more than their peers who have an average or above-average economic condition.
Pages: 445 - 462 (18 pages)
Екологичното гражданство през погледа на младите хора
Young People’s Views on Environmental Citizenship
Abstract: In the conditions of globalization, it is an established belief that environmental and climate change threaten the existence of natural ecosystems, of which human society is a part. In this situation, the creation of sustainable environmental citizenship is the responsibility of the whole society. Susceptible to the topic are young people who are just actively entering public structures. How do social actions contribute to achieving sustainability as well as forming harmonious relationships with the environment? What is the contribution of the institutions? How do young people assess their effectiveness in developing environmental citizenship? These are the main research questions in the article. The formation of skills, values, competencies for living in the community and the construction of environmentally responsible behaviour is directly related to the process of socialization of the individual and the role of education in this process is an initial thesis of the article. This paper describes our research efforts aimed at showing the potential of young people to be agents of change in the context of their civic position, preserving and developing the environment. It also shows their need for knowledge and competencies for sustainable environmental development. From this point of view, we were paid particular attention to educational institutions and their approaches to the formation of proactive environmental behaviour and positions. The topic of environmental citizenship analyzed based on empirical material from qualitative methods. The main conclusion of the article is the explication of environmental citizenship through the potential of the educational institution as a key subject of heuristic educational and training approaches to improve the interaction between the individual and the environment.
Pages: 463 - 483 (21 pages)
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Специфичният възход на българските интернет мрежи. Технологии, пазари и логиката на онлайн пиратството
The Specific Rise of the Bulgarian Internet Networks. Technologies, Markets, and the Logic of Online Piracy
Abstract: The analysis is set within the broader field of Internet sociology and focuses on the overlap between the economic, social, and technological structures. It looks into the processes behind the historical rise and transformation of the Internet infrastructure and the market of internet service providers in Bulgaria (1990-2000). It uses the Actor-Network theory and methodology, specifically M. Callon’s Theory of translation, to explore the intermingling between online piracy and the construction of a technological infrastructure for the telecommunication market. The main idea of the research is that the widespread piracy among domestic users structures and determines the direction for the particular technological trajectory that Bulgaria took. The text shows how piracy emerges during market competition and the post-socialist breakdown of the old institutional ties between the numerous economic actors that build an alternative market for access to pirated internet content. The outcome from this is a local infrastructure adapted to the transfer of large amounts of data that peer-to-peer users (p2p) share with each other. Different types of strategies by consumers are differentiated between, as well as the ways they affect the technological transfer and their link to the economic actors/stakeholders/parties that implement the new technologies. For the purpose of the analysis, data has been collected from online discussion forums, where the demand and the supply side meet.
Pages: 484 - 510 (27 pages)
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Ще отнеме ли изкуственият интелект работата на преводачите?
Will the AI Rob Translators of Their Work?
Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is a leading technology of digital transformation. AI is expected to cause jobs loss in general – initially in professions associated with routine activities and subsequently in the field of creative professions as well. Present article analyzes the results of own empirical sociological survey of Bulgarian translators’ attitude towards AI and the ways it’s going to change their profession. Most of them perceive artificial intelligence and automatization as threats to the profession. According to them digital technologies and AI will modify the profession releaving the routine technical part of the job. Hence translators will predominantly edit machine-translated texts and teach artificial intelligence to do machine translation. Analysis’ conclusion demonstrates that in the case of Bulgarian translators the pessimistic scenarios (Frey and Osborne, 2017) about mass jobs destruction are not justified. Expectations of labor quality deterioration as a result of digitalization (Holtgrewe, 2014) are not justified as well. Present survey results can serve as a basis for further research of artificial intelligence impact on other creative professions.
Pages: 511 - 533 (23 pages)
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Културата на (не)устойчивото развитие – поглед през Европа към България
The Culture of (Un)Sustainable Development: Looking to Bulgaria from a European Perspective
Abstract: Recurring economic crises, growing social insecurity, and environmental threats have brought forward the issue of sustainable development (SD) as a universal responsibility, called by some the “Green Revolution” (Peach 2013). In response to trends that the planet can no longer bear (WCED 1987), two discursive fields are formed that are mutually stimulating: On the one hand, more and more researchers are dealing with different aspects of endangered human existence on the planet, culminating in the theory of a risk society that began to produce more risks globally than wealth (Beck 1992; Giddens 1992). On the other hand, national governments seek solutions to these problems on a practical day-to-day basis, and most often with partial and indeterminate results. The intersection of these discourses is the report “Our Common Future” (1987) of the UN World Commission on Environment and Development, which proposes an integrated approach to solving problems, defining the three “pillars” of SD: a vibrant economy, a healthy environment and social equity. Culture has been added to them over the last two decades (Hawkes 2001). The article examines how culture permeates EU sustainable development policies through urban policies and how this resonates in Bulgaria. The analysis is based on documentary research and review of the Internet and media resources.
Pages: 534 - 558 (25 pages)
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Устойчиво градско развитие: постижения и предизвикателства
Sustainable Urban Development: Achievements and Challenges
Abstract: The aim of the text is to highlight the achievements and outline the challenges which the European Union (EU) policy for sustainable development is facing in an attempt to identify the orientation and boundaries of a successful urban development strategy. Firstly, I analyze the problems related to the definition of the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development. Secondly, I raise the question why cities and urban development are important when talking about and striving for sustainability. On this theoretical basis and based on the presented data on urbanization and urban development, the text focuses further on the strategies for sustainable urban development at European level and in a global context, highlighting possible perspectives and obstacles. The thesis presented is that cities, city governments and urban communities are one of the main “players” in sustainable development policy at all levels – global, supranational (European Union), regional, national and local. The analysis of the policies at two of these levels – global and European – shows that cities are indeed leaders in the process of sustainable development. Under the pressure of urbanization, intensified human mobility and concentration of services in urban spaces, it is increasingly necessary to think globally and in terms of sustainability. The EU Urban Agenda, adopted in 2016, introduces an innovative working method for multilevel management of sustainability and objectives, co-chaired by all partners on a voluntary, inclusive, and equal basis. This confirms the conclusion that sustainable urban development and sustainable development in general are impossible without coordinated action, common strategies and shared visions of all social actors and stakeholders as well as integrated approach at EU level.
Pages: 559 - 574 (16 pages)
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Нагласи на местната власт и гражданските актьори за развитието на София като зелен град чрез градско земеделие
The Attitudes of Local Authorities and Civil Actors to Sofia’s Green Urban Development Through Urban Agriculture
Abstract: When studying the opportunities and challenges for sustainable urban development, it is important to analyse the role of the local authorities for the implementation of green policies, as well as the existing and recognized by citizens conditions for civil participation in a dialogue with the policy makers and in the process of governance of their own communities and social spaces. The article offers such analysis, based on data gathered within the research project “Urban agriculture as a strategy for improving the quality of life of urban communities”, funded by the Bulgarian National Science fund for the period 2016–2020. The project studied the potential of urban agriculture to develop as a socially significant activity in the city of Sofia. The analysis presents the similarities and differences in the attitudes toward urban agriculture as an instrument for sustainable urban policies between different actors. This reveals existing deficits in the communication and information exchange between local authorities, practitioners, and their partner civil groups. Some factors for these deficits, as well as ways to overcome them are also outlined.
Pages: 575 - 595 (21 pages)
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Неолокализъм, занаятчийска бира и антимакдоналдизация
Neolocalism, Craft Beer and Anti-McDonaldization
Abstract: The article offers a case study of the development of craft brewering in Bulgaria and its local specifics. Craft beer brewing offers an interesting business model based on shared knowledge and technological experience, close relations between craft brewers and often common projects. Craft beer culture develops new type of relationship between consumers and producers; relationship based on closer communication and shared values. Craft brewing is an industry based on traditional knowledge and innovation that can be used as an example of neolocalism policies and new sustainable business models that aim region development and the establishment of sustainable communities. The article traces craft brewing as closely linked to the regions cultural and natural heritage.
Pages: 596 - 623 (28 pages)
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Структура на конфликта в случая Бедечка. Физически и когнитивни измерения на социалната мрежа
Structure of the Conflict in the Bedechka Case. Physical and Cognitive Dimensions of the Social Network
Abstract: The “Bedechka caseˮ is a manifestation of a systemic problem as a result of the changes related to the political transformation in Bulgaria after 1989, creating preconditions for the emergence of irregularities related to the regulation of processes and presents a conflict topic in the context of coexistence in the city. The park as an urban topos is a socially constructed space, which is the result of an agreement between the citizens and the government. The aim of the research is to present its genesis and to study the possibilities for solving the case.
Pages: 624 - 647 (24 pages)
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IN MEMORIAM: Стоян Михайлов (1930–2020)
IN MEMORIAM: Stoyan Mihaylov (1930–2020)
Pages: 648 - 649 (2 pages)
„Всеки от нас плаща някакъв данък на времето“, интервю на Светла Колева със Стоян Михайлов
“Each of Us Pays the Penalty of the Times”. Stoyan Mihailov interviewed by Svetla Koleva
Abstract:
Pages: 650 - 679 (30 pages)
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В плен на социалната атомизация? Въздействие на социалния капитал върху склонността към национализъм
Enslaved by Social Atomization? Impact of Social Capital on Inclination to Nationalism
Abstract: The resurgence of nationalism and anti-globalization is a world-wide phenomenon in current times. Concentrating on nationalism as a personal political attitude, this paper tries to examine the impact of social capital on people’s inclination to nationalism. Based on fixed effects model and data from World Value Survey, we find a negative impact of social capital on the inclination to nationalism, which shows that people with less social capital have more possibility to support nationalism. Sensitivity analyses shows the robustness of the conclusion.
Pages: 680 - 695 (16 pages)
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Годишно общо събрание на Българска социологическа асоциация и Конференция на тема „Социологията в свят на пандемия“, 18–19 декември 2020 г., София
Annual General Meeting of the Bulgarian Sociological Association and Conference entitled Sociology in a World of Pandemic, December 18–19, 2020
Pages: 696 - 700 (5 pages)
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Нови книги
New books
Pages: 731 - 733 (3 pages)