TIME AND SIGNS:
SOCIOLOGY IN DIALOGUE BETWEEN GENERATIONS
Issue Editor: Svetla Koleva
CONFLICT AS DIFFERENCE AND DIFFERENCE AS CONFLICT: YESTERDAY AND TODAY
The Ethnic Conflict in Bulgaria – 1989: A Retrospective Analysis and Present-day Implications
The Ethnic Conflict in Bulgaria – 1989: Present-day Projections
Cultural Difference Today
The Torn by Glocality. Local Fear vs. Global “Threat”
CONTEMPORARY SOCIETIES: DIMENSIONS OF INSECURITY
Uncertainty in Post-Human Society
The Great Transition. Bernard Muntyan’s Views on Society and Man, Ideology and the Lie
The Lie: The Importance of Viewpoints. Reflections on Bernard Muntyan, the Ideological Lie and the Case of National Socialism
The Scientist: Scientific and Civic Responsibility for Knowledge, Truth and Lie
LOCATIONS AND GENERATIONS: SOCIOLOGY FACING THE DILEMMAS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT
Generations and Families: 50 Years of Sociology of the Family
“Such a Small World”. The International Network of Francophone Sociologists in Time and Space
SOCIOLOGY AND GLOBAL RISKS
China as a System Transition Risk Society: Post-Socialist Transition and Its Risk Components
On the Definition of Salafism and Its Branches
On Truth and the University Today
Ethnomethodology and the Problem of Everyday Knowledge (K. Koev, Ethnomethodology and the Logic of Everyday Understanding, Sofia: NBU, 2017)
Maxim Molhov (1947–2017)
A Session of the Institute for Critical Theories of Supermodernity, devoted to the Jubilee of the First Volume of Karl Marx’s Capital (1–2.07.2017, Sofia)
International Scientific Session under the Project NEGOTIATE “Negotiating Possibilities for Overcoming Early Job Insecurity and Labour Market Exclusion of Youths in Europe” (5–6.10.2017, Sofia)
“(Un)Making Europe: Capitalism, Solidarities, Subjectivities”. 13th Conference of the European Sociological Association (29.08.–1.09.2017, Athens)
Svetlana Hristova, Siyka Kovacheva
“Contemporary Social Challenges and Education in Sociology”, a conference of the Bulgarian Sociological Association and the Department of Economic Sociology at the UNWE (21–22.11.2017, Sofia)
Scientific Conference “Reformation and Revolution” (17–18.11.2017, Sofia)
Scientific Conference “Hidden and Revealed: Levels of Interpretation in Comparative Religious Studies – Texts and Practices” (28–29.11.2017, Sofia)
First International Meeting of Young Weber Scholars – Max-Weber-Network (28.11–1.12.2017, Hamburg)
Conference “Values, Structures and Institutions – 10 Years after Accession to the EU” (1.12.2017, Sofia)
40 Years of the Teaching of Sociology at the Faculty of Architecture
Comments and Reviews
A Large-scale Analysis of the Bulgarian Transition (P.-Е. Mitev, The Transition: Political Aspects, Iztok-Zapad, 2017)
Community with the Other (М. Grekova, Community with the Other. Lectures on Sociology of Social Communities, St. Kl. Ohridski Publ., 2017)
Negative Dialectics of Disagreement (V. Gueorguieva, Multitudes of Discontent: Anthropology of protest movements in Bulgaria 2009–2013, St. Kl. Ohridski Publ., 2017)
On a New Research Field: The Gift and Giving to Education (P. Boyadjieva, R. Stoyanova (eds.), The Gift and Cultures of Giving for Education: Theories, Institutions, Individuals, Iztok-Zapad, 2017)
The Translator as a Historian of Ideas (S. Atanassov, De la littérature française à la vie. Moyen Age, Temps Modernes, Sofia: Editions Colibri, 2016)
CONTENTS OF THE 49TH YEAR OF THE JOURNAL SOCIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
THE ETHNIC CONFLICT IN BULGARIA, 1989: PRESENT-DAY PROJECTIONS
This text was presented at the discussion “Time and Signs”: Sociology in Intergenerational Dialogue, organized by the Bulgarian Sociological Association. It attempts to acces, from a contemporary viewpoint, the empirical sociological information contained in the study Ethnic Conflict in Bulgaria, 1989, focused on the turbulent socio-economic changes.
Keywords: ethnicity, migrants, conflict, communities.
THE CULTURAL DIFFERENCE TODAY
The article reflects upon the increased significance of cultural differences today, both in the constitution of social realities and, even more, in their perceptions, experiences and interpretations. Typical examples of aggressive and even terrorist manifestation, caused by such differences recently, are given and analyzed in the text. They put new and difficult to formulate questions about the rights of certain individuals, groups and communities in the European societies, including the Bulgarian one.
Keywords: cultural difference, values and rights of individuals, groups and communities.
THE TORN BY GLOCALITY. THE LOCAL FEAR VS THE GLOBAL “THREAT”
Based on analysis of data from sociological research on the attitudes towards refugees in Bulgaria, the article seeks to answer the question: what is the nature of glocality in Bulgaria? The thesis is that the feeling of insecurity in a large part of the Bulgarians leads to re-traditionalization, a return to somewhat premodern forms of closeness and familyhood. This closure is caused to a large extent by the media, suggesting that one lives in an open global world full of threats. The clash between “our” routine, familiar, predictable everyday life with the virtual incomprehensible “outer” world, full of dangers and strange people, shown on TV , provokes conflict at two different levels – between “us”, “our” “real” life and virtual imagined Others, perceived as a threat. Glocality is constituted as a torn by contradictions hybrid between a closed community and virtually constructed abstract “Them”, stereotyped as “refugees”, “terrorists” and “Islamists”, between “real” “Us” and virtual “Them”, whose encounter is difficult to be achieved.
Keywords: glocality, globalization, refugees, re-traditionalization, virtual reality.
UNCERTAINTY IN POST-HUMAN SOCIETY
Uncertainty is a universal form of human attitude towards the life-world, but it is in any case contextual or historically defined. At the beginning of the modern age, uncertainty was thematized and problematized. Man is at the center of his own life-world. The main question is, what can become human – not what it was; what can become society, not what it was or what it is. The fundamental assumption is that people and society can cope with uncertainty and achieve certainty. Social development is considered linear. The later modern age imposes the principle of non-linear social development. The place of Man changes substantially in the post-human society. Humans are cohabiting with, and dependent on, non-humans. Uncertainty becomes virtually permanent and certainty can not be a final goal. New living conditions require new solutions to the new problems of Man and society.
the new problems of man and society.
Keywords: uncertainty, certainty, linear social development, non-linear social development, non-human, post-human society, restructuring of the life-world.
THE GREAT TRANSITION. BERNARD MUNTYAN’S VIEWS ON SOCIETY AND MAN, IDEOLOGY AND THE LIE
The article presents the views of the eminent Bulgarian philosopher Bernard Muntyan on society and humankind. The 21st century brought drastic intensity to the contradiction between the objectivity of knowledge in the sphere of science, and non-objectivity/the lie in the sphere of ideology; between the global universal human problems and the search for regional/national benefits derived from unilateral decisions. Muntyan looks for the root of this contradiction, defines the risks it holds, and the ways to overcome it.
The lie is part of the ideology that legitimates and upholds the clashing interests of different social groups and communities. In fact, universal human interests are a priority on the social agenda. Thus, the lie becomes a global problem. Moreover, it is a basic problem, because, on the one hand, it is a barrier that must be surmounted in order to overcome all other barriers; on the other hand, the barrier is growing higher instead of being reduced.
Keywords: horizontal and vertical social relations, limes of society and humankind, the lie, post-Homo Sapiens.
THE LIE: THE IMPORTANCE OF VIEWPOINTS. REFLECTIONS ON BERNARD MUNTYAN, THE IDEOLOGICAL LIE AND NATIONAL SOCIALISM AS A CASE
This article proceeds from Bulgarian philosopher Bernard Muntyan’s conception of ideological lie and offers an illustration of, and a critical reflection on, the lie through the historical example of National Socialism and Adolf Hitler’s views on truth and lie. With the help of numerous references to original texts and speeches, we argue that Hitler constructs a bi-polar world perception divided by the images of “us”, as bearers of truth, and “them” as advocates of lying. It simultaneously confirms Muntyan’s “single truth theory” regarding extreme ideologies and evokes issues related to subjectivity of viewpoints on lying and the difficulties of defining reliable instruments against false knowledge.
Keywords: Bernard Muntyan, ideological lie, National Socialism, propaganda.
THE SCIENTIST: SCIENTIFIC AND CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY FOR KNOWLEDGE, TRUTH AND LIE
In dialogue with Peter-Emil Mitev’s analysis of the ideas of Bernard Muntyan, the article formulates questions related to the scientific and civic responsibility of the scientist reflecting on the global problems of the modern world. For Muntyan, the cognitive and civic ideal of the scientist is “the whole truth”, viewed as “intolerance towards lies”, as “a struggle against all lies”, as a possibility for achieving a humanity in which society and the individual shall preserve the all-human.
Keywords: Bernard Muntyan, truth, lie, scientific and civil responsibility of the scientist.
GENERATIONS AND FAMILIES: 50 YEARS OF SOCIOLOGY OF THE FAMILY
The family in Western Europe and North America has undergone multiple transformations since its theorization by Parsons in the 1950s. From now on, the ideal of conjugality is gender equality. Its formulation was made possible, thanks to the mobilization of the feminist movement, by the recognition of women’s right to control their own fertility in the 1970s. It is this ideal of conjugality that presided over the legalization of same-sex marriage during the 2000s. Since then, the axis of common family law is filiation not marriage. Today, it is the child who should be at the heart of the new family law, but the legislator (for example, in Quebec or France) is slow to materialize this major transformation in the construction of the contemporary family.
Keywords: family, marriage, filiation, gender equality, re-composite families, everyday kinship.
“SUCH A SMALL WORLD”: THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF FRANCOPHONE SOCIOLOGISTS IN TIME AND SPACE
Created in 1958 by Georges Gurvitch and Henri Janne to resist the domination of the American sociology, the international association of the sociologists of French-speaking represents the third international association of sociology today. At first, this article looks back to the circumstances of its foundation and to the stake in French as working language in international congresses to try then to establish the characteristics of this French-speaking network of the sociology in the time and the space. It examines its policy of membership, the places of its congresses and its themes but also the composition of its executive offices. So, since the 1980s, the sociologists of Maghreb and Middle East, Black Africa and Eastern Europe became a little more visible but the French-speaking network remains always dominated by France and other founding countries (Belgium, Canada and Switzerland). Finally, the world of the AISLF appears as “small world” nevertheless very necessary for the sociological plurality and its dynamism.
Keywords: AISLF, congress, Georges Gurvitch, Henri Janne, network.
CHINA AS A SYSTEM TRANSITION RISK SOCIETY: POST-SOCIALIST TRANSITION AND ITS RISK COMPONENTS
This study analyzes contemporary China as a complex risk society in which social, economic, and ecological risk syndromes pertaining to highly diverse levels and systems of development are manifested simultaneously. In particular, due to its so-called gradual approach to system reform, China is beset with a complicated mix of socialist and post-socialist (marketized) syndromes of risks. Gradual reform is in practice a sort of peripatetic pluralism in economic and social reform for maximizing developmental utilities of all types of human, material, and institutional resources. This policy line is inevitably accompanied by similarly plural sources and factors for social, economic, and ecological risks. The unprecedented temporal and systemic complexity in China’s risk structure has crucial implications for the country’s much deplored tendency for inequalities. In particular, class inequalities and regional disparities seem to be manifested in risk dimensions no less critically than in material dimensions. The state’s developmentalism alone is no solution to risk inequalities or risk complexities.
Keywords: China, gradual reform, complex risk society, risk inequalities, developmentalism.
ON THE DEFINITION OF SALAFISM AND ITS BRANCHES
The study introduces a definition of Salafism from the perspective of Islamic intellectual history by analyzing specific ideas, cases, processes and entanglements in Muslim theology and jurisprudence. The essay considers the ongoing scholarly debates within Middle Eastern and Islamic studies by simultaneously scrutinizing Arabic-Islamic sources to delineate a set of key relevant Muslim theological and legal debates. The analysis tackles some major issues of the typology and classification of the Salafī movement. Thus, the issue of the enigmatic and ambivalent character of the term Salafism is touched upon insofar as the concept is still applied in a too vague manner to some modernist reformers from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century as well as to the markedly different contemporary Salafī movement encompassing a wide range of individuals and groups, including political formations like the Nūr Party in Egypt or jihadist groups, such as the Islamic State (IS). In so doing, the analysis also re-examines some conceptualizations of Islam, and particularly Salafism, within Western social thought.
Keywords: Salafism; quietist Salafīs; political Salafīs; Jihādī-Salafīs (al-salafiyya al-jihādiyya); Wahhābism; Islamic law (sharī‘a) and Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh); Islamic creed (‘aqīda) and method (manhaj); the Islamic State (IS) group; social theory.