UNGRIEVABLE AND GRIEVABLE LIVES: SOCIOANALYSIS IN THE ERA OF BIOPOWER
The article tests an approach to the problem field of socioanalysis – the suffering from society – departing from a basic biopolitical distinction proposed by Judith Butler: between ungrievable and grievable lives. This distinction, into which the anticipation of death and dying is coded, is thematized in two aspects. In the context of the analyhtic of biopower, it is considered as heuristic with regard to a possible concept of biopower unconscious, as well as to outlining the category of ‘radical otherness’ in the field of biopolitics today. In the context of socioanalysis, the figure of (un)grievability, as proposed by Butler, is analyzed with an interest to the work of mourning and the related modalities of intersubjective time in death and suffering. The surviving and the impossible synchronization between lives in the meeting with death are conceived as a constitutive condition for the practices of caring-for (correspondingly, of therapeutic dispositives) permeated by strategies of giving – or taking – time. In conclusion, the diagnosis of the present time as ‘biopolitical management of the ungrievable’ and reduction of grief is related to the problem, raised by the late (‘anthropological’) Bourdieu, of the power to dispose of the time of the Others.
Keywords: socianalysis, biopolitical management of the ungrievable, work of grief, biopower unconscious, radical otherness, power over the time of life
REVOLUTION AND TIME: CONTEXT AND PSYCHOANALYTIC TURN IN JULIA KRISTEVA’S WRITING
The paper examines Kristeva’s persistent interest in revolution/revolt as a problem of time (rupture, breach, schism but also turn, curve, perpetual movement) and as a problem in time (“What revolt today?”). The methodological turn from linguistic to psychoanalysis plays a crucial role in the shift of Kristeva’s thought from the political interface of poetic language to her later emphasis on intimate revolt as the basis of social renewal and to her current take on the sick ideality at the heart of new forms of revolt. This shift, however, is not only a matter of methodological priority but also of a vibrant sensitivity to shifting social, political, technological and cultural exigencies. Evoking Dante’s neologism trasumanar, “transhumanize” in her recent work, Kristeva’s reflection moves from anamnesis to fantasy and from return to rupture in order to re-open the question of revolt as a defining characteristic of the human.
Keywords: revolution, revolt, time, robot, transhumanization
THE BIOGRAPHICAL MACHINE, THE DEATH OF BIOGRAPHIES, AND REVOLUTIONARY SELF-INHERITANCE
In this article, I return to a study conducted in the early1990s by the Institute for Social Critique, ‘The Death of Biographies’. It was extremely interesting for us at the time to witness the spectacular phenomena of the crisis of biographical machines. We called ‘biographical machine’ the effects of public constitution of identities, the heliotropic effects (turnabouts) of biographical towards historical narratives – taking a position as from the future, making the sense of ‘my/our life’ cohere with ‘the meaning of history’. A biographical machine throws bridges, neutralizes breakages and abysses between life and biography, giving life a generally accepted and recognized meaning. Life and the narratives about it, although intertwined, are not the same thing. In the transitions/translations from private to public spheres, the hidden tensions break out between the person living his or her own ‘unique’ life and his or her public presentations. Life, although being a reality made into a unified whole, has no universal structure of meaning. The border events (‘interspace events’) interwoven into narratives mark the transitions between radically different biographical situations – unfolding and convolution, acquiring and deprivation, giving and taking away a ‘meaning of life’. Following Freud, we called these processes ‘biographical dreaming’. The crisis of biographies reveals the symptoms of blocking the transfer of meanings from the individual and group plane into the universal (biographical and historical) plane and reversely, caused by the ‘Golgothas’ of history. Today, biographical machines seem to awaken again. An effect/symptom of what is this?
Keywords: biographical/historical narratives, biographical machines, heliotropic effects, biographical crises, revolutionary self-inheritance
PROPHECIES, DRIVES, BIOGRAPHIES
The issue of he following communication is the possible, ot the impossible links between personal and family traumas, on the one side, the biographical and the autobiographical, on the other, and the models in the mythological cosmogonies, on the thirth side. The limits of the biografical are solicited throuhg the deconstuction of the notion of Complexe of Oedipus.
Are we able to avoid the circonstances, the family and the general contexte of our birth? What is the meaninig of the “signs” of our “destiny”? Ansewers are provided from differents fields of the knowlege: social, political, biografical, psychoanlytical.
Via an analyse of the notion “drive”, or “Triebe” in Freud and Lacan, the article deals with the prophecy and its secret messages, the enigme of our origin and how they are, or are not integrated in the social and the symbolic order.
Keywords: prophecy, biography, trauma, drives, cosmogony, enigme
AFTERWARDNESS, OR DEFERRED ACTION: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HISTORY OF A PSYCHOANALYTICAL CONCEPT
The article problematizes the psychoanalytical concept of deferred – occurring in the course of therapy – attribution of meaning to traumatic experiences. The author pre-sents the genealogy of the concept of “afterwardness” or “deferred action” in the works of Freud and certain post-Freudian interpretations. The article outlines a possible socio-analytical, relevant application of the concept in biographical studies. In the course of sociological interviewing, this use of the term would enable stimulating the process of biographical remembering of the past as well as the present self-understanding of the respondent, thanks to which the suppressed experiences, latent contents, or hitherto unconscious attitudes may be justified and acquire a new meaning for him/her.
Keywords: Nachträglichkeit, deferred action, remembering, subconscious, psychoanalytical understanding of time
MEASURES AND MEASUREMENT IN EVERYDAY LIFE: ON A MOTIVE IN HEIDEGGER AND SACKS
Basically, the paper is centered both on the construction, resp. usage of concepts in everyday life and on the necessity of legitimizing of sociological concepts in everyday practices. More concretely, it is focused on the question of everyday measurement. It is highlightedthrough a comparison between the specifics of everyday measuring in M. Heidegger’s Being and Time (§§ 23, 24) and the so-called “standardized categories” in frames of H. Sacks’ everyday “measurement systems” (Lectures on Conversation). Special emphasis is put on the complementarity between both perspectives and on the logic of use of everyday measuring constructs in everyday practices.
Keywords: Dasein, formulations, standardized categories, practical formalization, measurement, measurement systems, Ent-fernung
THE PROBLEM OF REFLEXIVITY: THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN ETHNOMETHODOLOGYAND SOCIOANALYSIS
Departing from the numerous insistences – on the one hand, those of Bourdieu on the need for a ‘sociology of sociology’ or for a reflection on the social conditions and the limits of scientific knowledge and practical action, and on the other, those of ethnomethodologists represented by Garfinkel, on the ‘embodied reflexivity’ of the ‘competent member’ – the text views reflexivity as a praxeological problem in and for their sociological analyses.
Retaining the perspective given by Bourdieu, reflexivity is thematised as a ‘constitutive trait’ of ‘scientific habitus’ as well as an essential feature of the habitus of the agent who is practically acting outside the scientific field.
In the ethnomethodological context, the thematisation of reflexivity is focused in ‘embodied reflexivity’ defined as a ‘singular feature of practical actions, practical circumstances, of common sense knowledge of social structures, and the practical sociological reasoning’ (Garfinkel).
Choosing these perspectives was motivated by the intention to outline a praxeologically oriented conception of the actually, in practice, deploying of reflex reflexivity which borrows its ‘embodied’ character from ethnomethodology but analysed in the context of a socialized corporeality.
Keywords: ethnomethodology, socialized corporeality, socioanalysis, reflex reflexivity
INEQUALITY IN A PRAXEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: ITS EVERYDAY FORMULATIONS AS EMPIRICAL DATA
This study proposes a praxeological optic towards inequality in problematizing the ways in which it ‘happens’ in everyday interactions as a member achievement. In this meaning context, the question how inequality exists is not simply ontological and/or epistemological, but also methodological: inequality as a social fact cannot be understood analytically if we don’t take into account that 1) it is a concept borrowed from natural language (and therefore is essentially indexical); and 2) the way in which members ‘grasp’ inequality as a meaningful social phenomenon is a constitutive part of the objective relations themselves of inequality into which they are immersed. The study’s last section dwells on two empirical cases that provide data on how agents ‘do’ the practical formulations of their social positions, relations, and forms of interaction, and hence ‘manage’ and ‘negotiate’ the inequalities between themselves as a part of their everyday affairs.
Keywords: inequality, praxeological perspective, indexical, haecceitas, practical formulation
MODALITIES, MODALIZATIONS, MODAL TRANSITIONS
The paper addresses the question of the relationship between different groups of modalities from the perspective of a multimodal logic, which would be of help in the development of the methodological apparatus of socioanalysis.
Keywords: modality, transmodality, modal transitions, Bulgaria Guillaumist school, so-cioanalysis
LOGICAL FORMS OF INDUCTIONAND THE DATA OF SOCIOANALYSIS
The article aims to outline the chances of the non-classical intentional analysis of inductive reasoning in investigating the problem of everyday quantification. The last is interpreted as an aspect of a considerable part of the forms of the reasoning itself. The presented extended raising of the problem about the logical forms of practical induction enables these logical forms to be accepted as data in the socioanalyst’s investigationof cases of everyday psychopathologies, disorders of the biographical illusio or its loss. Based on the analysis of everyday quantification presented by Deyanov, Sabeva and Petkov (Deyanov, Sabeva, Petkov 2013) the article also emphasizes the deindexicalizational and reindexicalizational functioning of quantifiers such as “always”, “lately” and “again”, concurrently retaining the ability of their prepredicative functioning and their performative effects. On this groudns the paper also introduces a critical analysis of the approach Harvey Sacks uses in his lectures on Conversation Analysis for the interpretation of “everyone” and “no one” respectively in “Everyone has to lie” and “I have no one to turn to” (as a perspective of people prone to suicide). At the end the article provides an experimental problematization of the so-called by Sacks “knowledge that isprotectedagainst induction”, presenting arguments for the concept to be considered as an aspect of the socioanalytical data problem.
Keywords: practical induction, logical forms, non-classical intentional analysis, everyday quantification, socioanalytical data
FROM STANGHELLINI AND BOURDIEU TOWARD THE SOCIOANALYSIS OF SELF-INHERITANCE: ON COMMON CORPOREALITY AS A FUNDAMENT
Both in Bourdieu’s socioanalysis and in Stanghellini’s phenomenological psychiatric practice, the overcoming of the limits set by the philosophical ontological and methodological framework of modernity remains largely a matter of practical sense, and its explication is most often endogenously inscribed into the specific frame of their respective discipline. From this practical sense, however, one can extract philosophemes and methodologemes that could be of use to the future socioanalysists of self-inheritance – one of them being the notion of ‘common corporeality’ as a shared fundament for the interactions of cognizing and cognized subjects, conceived as ontologically active.
Keywords: socioanalysis of self-inheritance, empathy, common corporeality
SOCIOANALYSIS OF POSTPONEMENT(THE CASE OF Z.)
The article proposes a socioanalytical examination of a case of positional social suffering – that of Z. The introductory part presents the prerequisites for the analysis. Attention is paid to the situation of proximity by friendship between the analyzed and the analyzer by pointing out some of the methodological peculiarities resulting from it. The first part of the exposition presents the socioanalytical profile of Z. In it the concept of postponement – a characteristic feature of the case – is presented as a specific type of negative investment which blocks the ability of successful self-inheriting, leading to a particular affective dynamic, but not to a loss of the illusio. The second part looks at the structures of intersubjectivity, with an emphasis on communication during the sessions. It presents various aspects of Z’s syndrome and an attempt is made to understand them through a socioanalytical method which is distinguished from that of psychoanalysis. The conclusion gives a brief of observations on Z. made in the months following the completion of the sessions, along with reflections on their therapeutic effect.
Keywords: socioanalysis, self-inheriting, postponement, negative investment, proximity
SELF-INHERITANCE AND DISEASE
The article aims to situate the problem of disease in a socio-analytical perspective. In this context, disease may become a cause of existential anxiety, of fracturing and loss of self-identity, of the inability to maintain the biographical illusio; but it may also create the capacity (albeit “coercively” provided) for self-inheritance. The first part of the text deals with the specificity of socio-analysis for two, where the affectively united relational identities of the mother and daughter, suffering together, connect with the relation between analysand and analyst. The second part traces various aspects of the diseased person’s social suffering – the shaking of his/her Who when facing the figure of the diseased person, the social expectations and identities that figure holds. Disease influences the experience of corporeality, leading to alienation from one’s body not only in terms of loss of control over it but also as a feeling of loss of the individual’s Self-hood. The third part focuses on the concrete case of a disordered biography that attempts to assemble the fragments of its fractured identity through the notion of disease as providing the grounds for a new start and, respectively, as an occasion for self-inheritance.
Keywords: socio-analysis for two, social suffering, identity invasion in the diseased person, corporeal experience, self-inheritance
SOCIOANALYSIS IN THE FIELD OF HELPING PROFESSIONS.IN THE CONTEXT OF THE BULGARIAN INSTITUTIONAL EMPLOYMENT SYSTEM
Over the last decade, the state system of employment has been undergoing a continuous process of reformation, which has started with a change in the attitude towards the “unemployed” – the unemployed person has start to be thought as a “client” and hence all services that were subsequently methodically developed and introduced into the system are aimed to serve his individual interests and needs. But the willing the client to feel more comfortable with his position as an unemployed person, as well as the interpersonal crises occurring in the institutional spaceto be controlled, remains unrealised and all this is materialising permanently in a morbidenvironment of “... nervous atmosphere”, “falseness”, “hostility”, “boredom” and “failed relations” (Deyanov, Sabeva, Petkov 2013). In order to get to the essence of the described problem, I will first analyse the practical experience of taking the position of both an unemployed person and a helping professional. As a next step, I will try to detect those "vicious" places in the relationships and interactions between them that give rise to the above described social pathology. Last but not least, I will try to observe if the socioanalysis can be placed in the employment system field, which is permanently marked by persistent manifestations of the unsound relations between the unemployed person and the helping professional, who inevitably appear to be agents or contractors of these relations.
Keywords: socioanalisys, instituting, identity, unemployed, helping professional, undesired field, state employment system
THE CASE OF BECKET. SELF-INHERITANCE AND IDENTITY
Konstantin Kaburov, Tanya Orbova
This article, dedicated to Pierre Bourdieu’s 85th anniversary and to the 20th anniversary of sociology in Plovdiv, is product of our summer practice called “The ethnomethodology and socioanalysis from the perspective of the praxeological turn in logic”. In the center of our theoretical activities during this practice was Jean Anouilh’s play “Becket or the honour of God”, which rich empirical date, helped us to make a socioanalytical perusal of the conversations and the relationships between the main characters. The main methodological framework for analysis of the chosen fragments is, on the one hand, the non-classical transcendental logic, referring to the pre-predicativity of thought, proposed by Deyan Deyanov. On the other hand is the problem field of the logic of molecular performatives, developed by Todor Petkov, which includes the performative logic of naming acts. Both of these methodological frames are inspired by the so-called praxeological turn in the logic and methodology of humanities. At the basis of this analysis lay the central socioanalytical problem about self-inheritance, pointed out by Deyanov, Sabeva and Petkov. The problem of self-inheritance strongly relates to the theory of who- and what-identity. The main hypothesis of this paper says that“the symbolic nerve” that passes through all what-identities of Thomas Becket – the idea of honour– is the condition of possibility for inheriting a new who-identity.
Keywords: socioanalysis, self-inheritance, who- and what-identities, Becket
SIMMEL, FREUD AND THE WORLD OF SMELLS AS CHALLENGE TO SOCIOLOGY
The subject of olfaction – one that was put under a long and symptomatic silence (if not stigmatized) by the discourses of the humanities and social sciences – has been becoming quite important during the last two decades. The topic – and this is also a symptom – has been covered with more and more diversified descriptions while at the same time most of them have hardly touched its real nerve. I guess that such a nerve could not be ever approached and touched if the researcher would stay away of a psychoanalytical interpretation. It is namely the psychoanalytical ‘set of instruments’ that draws a different and, obviously, not so easily bearable picture on the subject in question. It appears that the world must have been symbolically constructed not only through posing a sort of a ‘vault’, i.e. a set of high referent points (values) which somehow pose it ‘from above’; in addition, the world must continuously be safeguarded ‘from below’. And this is because in the cultural process, i.e. in the process of constituting cultural symbols, there are remnants which systematically precipitate; there are unconscious formations which constantly endanger the world itself. What is the nature of such a danger? It consists in the fact that in every moment there is a risk the culturally repulsive malodorous formations to become once more a source of inspiration, of non-sublimated emotions, of affects which cannot be socially controlled. That is why I would say the disgust, the aversion is not just a defense symptom (in a psychoanalytical sense) but also, on the other side, it is a social construct and a power dispositive – and the sociality preserves and conserves itself through this very construct/dispositive.
Keywords: sociology, smells, psychoanalysis, disgust
DISCOURSE OF ENEMY IN DOCUMENTS OF STATE SECURITY:SOCIO-ANALYTICAL ASPECTS
This article aims to reveal and rethink the reality of socialism following a new approach based on two specific discourses: the first one which results from the official discourse of the socialist authority/regime and speaks through the documental archive of the Committee for State Security, the second one which is the discourse of the witnesses of that reality, the individuals who lived the socialism. The language used in these two quite different archives – the functioning of the discourse of the State Security and the socio-analytical effects that it produces will be of our main interest. The article is a research on the pseudonyms, with their specific expressiveness and emotionality, used by the State Security in its secret files and for aliasing of its agents. By this naming, an essentially negative, distinctive identity of over-deprivation i.e. they cannot do what they have to, and essentially affirmative distinctive identity of over-gifted (Penkova 2015a, 2015b) are attached to this two diametrically opposite profiles. The text outlines the different ways of producing of what we call specific “negatively stained” speech, based on the multilayered functioning oppositional pair “we” – “them” which dominates the ideological discourse. A discourse, which is focused on the figure of the enemy and alienated from the positively replete figure of the New Socialist man, and thus generates social suffering and profound traumatic experience, constantly confirmed by the retrospective testimonies, as well as by the effects which the shadows of the dossiers reproduced on those who bring themselves to a tardy meeting with them.
Keywords: socialism, State Security, discourse, enemy, socio-analysis, archive, testimony
NATIONAL CINEMA AND NATIONAL FILM MARKET IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION
This paper attempts to outline a methodological “map” of national research approaches in the field of cinema as art and industry. An ambivalent attitude towards Hollywood has been explored, occupying an important place for the formation of national film identity and its expression. In the text is summarized the “trajectory” of the national film as a concept and problematic field that follows the contemporary Bulgarian cinema after 1989. A key point of the study is the relationship between national cinema as an artistic discourse and the problems of its production and consumption at the intersection between the public and the market. The process of increased interest in contemporary Bulgarian cinema in the last ten years has been analytically substantiated.
Keywords: national cinema, Hollywood, cinema audience, cinema market, cinema attendance
ATTITUDES OF BULGARIAN STUDENTS TOWARDS CULTURAL HERITAGE PRESERVATION AND PROPENSITY FOR ENGAGEMENT AND DONATIONS
The goal of the paper is to reveal the effects of Bulgarian students’ attitudes toward cultural heritage preservation on their propensity to engage with and donate for it. The data are collected through a standardized questionnaire of 270 students from the Faculty of Economics of the Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”. Since the propensity for engagement and donation is determined by similar attitudes, the study tests a path model with engagement as a mediator between these factors and the intention to donate. The results show that the propensity for engagement is influenced positively by the degree of knowledge about the heritage; the belief that its protection is the responsibility of every citizen; the view that the heritage is a source of both economic and social benefits; as well as by personal visits to cultural heritage sites. The strongest factor for the willingness to pay or donate to the heritage is the readiness to engage with its preservation. The perception that only the state and municipalities are responsible for the heritage, as well as the gender, have no significant effect on the propensity for engagement and donation. Except for one, all indirect effects of identified factors on the propensity to donate through engagement are statistically significant.
Keywords: students, attitudes, cultural heritage, engagement, donations
DEMOCRACY AND THE RULE OF LAW IN THE PROCESS OF PREPARATION FOR EU MEMBERSHIP – THE CASE OF BULGARIA, SERBIA AND MACEDONIA
This paper presents an analysis of the processes of democratization in the countries from Central and Eastern Europe in the context of the EU membership. After a brief theoretical overview of the EU’s capacity for democratization, the article highlights the increased attention of the researchers paid to the quality of democracy and, in particular, to the rule of law as a key mechanism guaranteeing the successful functioning of representative democracy. The purpose of the article is to find empirical evidences of whether the EU has learned lessons from the accession of Bulgaria and Romania that can apply in its relations with the candidate countries from the Western Balkans in the direction of democratization. The research objective is the interaction between the EU and the candidate countries, which is realized through the main instrument of pre-accession conditionality – the annual reports of the EC which are used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of each applicant country towards meeting the EU membership standards.
Keywords: democratisation, conditionality, EU membership, rule of law
ATTRACTIVENESS OF MAJOR PROFESSIONS IN HEALTHCARE
Current article offers a comparative analysis of four major occupations in health care, studied from the point of view of their attractiveness – both for the persons exercising them and in the context of contemporary Bulgarian society. The subject of the analysis is the assessments and opinions of persons exercising these professions and for which the prestige and the attractiveness are not abstract characteristics, but objective and subjective states, subjected daily. The article focuses on the assessment of the basic characteristics of the four professions studied and their prestige and attractiveness in a comparative perspective. The analysis suggests interesting ideas for enhancing the attractiveness of major occupations in healthcare.
Keywords: attractiveness ofprofessions, majorprofessions, healthcare